What Is a DNS (Domain Name System)?

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If you've surfed the internet regularly, you should have found websites with names of all kinds, some very long, some complicated, and other unpronounceable. Perhaps you have wondered how it is possible that in a vast sea of computers such as Internet, these complexes can find names without error, and as recognized in the network. The answer is an important service called DNS ( Domain Name System ). The system has enabled DNS servers that make the Internet as we know it today.
Before we begin to explain what is DNS, we will review what is an IP address. Every computer on the Internet has a unique IP address. Think of this number as a phone number. When you want to communicate with a website, your computer needs to know the IP address that corresponds to it, because without it, there can be no interaction. It's like trying to talk to a friend in another country without knowing his phone number.
It would be quite difficult if you had to memorize all the numbers that correspond to all the web pages you want to see. Thus was created the DNS system. This allows us to translate a number or IP address to a name that makes sense, and that we see in our navigation bar. This makes it much simpler. For example, we will not have to remember the IP 115 124 104 9, but the name esds.co.in.
Domain names consist of two main parts: The domain and machine name. Domains are the last two segments of a domain name, while a subdomain or hostname preceding the domain and identifies a particular computer on a large domain. For example, using the above rule when put into your browser's address esds.co.in, you are making a request to an enabled Internet connection within the domain esds.co.in computer, and asking him to show the available information on your monitor.
There are many types of Internet domain to use, as shown below:
For commercial websites, we have the.com, but some years ago, everyone had to buy a domain of this type although their websites were not to make money.
For educational institutions, colleges and universities, the.edu domain is used.
The.net domain is usually used by network oriented corporations or ISPs, but some of the commercial or entertainment companies also use it.
The.org are nonprofit organizations. Many private and public institutions use such domains.
Most countries use codes that identify the domain they belong to, such as USA would use.com, Britain would use.uk, India would use.co.in, etc.
Who runs this whole system? How do you know which names are available? Who runs all this sustem?
Believe it or not, the administration of Internet name is managed by a single company called Network Solutions, also referred to as Internic. Since 1933, the company has kept the final database that is used in the network. Many companies offer you to buy the domain you choose if available, but it will take you to this company to make the booking and purchase.
How it works?
When questions from your PC through a web page are asked, for example esds.co.in, that information is first analyzed by your computer. At first you will not know the numeric value associated with that web page (IP or where it is physically housed), and therefore do not know where it is. Therefore, what you do is just ask your local DNS server, which is a computer or machine with your Internet service provider (ISP). This DNS server has an extensive database where countless translations IP names are found. This database is distributed and shared with other ISPs with their DNSs. This means that if the address you requested is not in your local DNS, the request to other DNS on the network is done to find the right translation.
The DNS let you know the location of the website you asked and direct your request over the network to the computer in question. A response will be received from the remote computer where the requested Web page is hosted, and if all goes well, information will start displaying on your PC. All this talk between computers is done in just milliseconds.

By Pravin Ganore / goarticles.com
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